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Some bodybuilders and athletes use trenbolone for its muscle-building and otherwise performance-enhancing effects. [ citation needed ] Such use is illegal in the United States and many other countries. The DEA classifies trenbolone as a Schedule III controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act . [14] Trenbolone is classified as a Schedule 4 drug in Canada [15] and a class C drug with no penalty for personal use or possession in the United Kingdom . [16] Use or possession of steroids without a prescription is a crime in Australia . [17] The infamous "duchess" cocktail administered to Russian athletes at the Sochi Winter Olympics consisted of oxandrolone , metenolone , and trenbolone. [18]

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage.

Die Biosynthese der Steroide gleicht zunächst in Grundzügen der Biosynthese der Terpene . Ein wichtiger Zwischenschritt führt zu Squalen , einem Triterpen. Lanosterol entsteht durch mehrere zyklische Verknüpfungen. Dieses Steroid mit Sterangrundgerüst liefert unter Abspaltung dreier Methylgruppen, Hydrierung und Isomerisierung Cholesterin . Über drei verschiedene Wege entstehen aus Cholesterin Aldosteron , Testosteron und Cortisol . Dies geschieht in der Nebennierenrinde und in den männlichen und weiblichen Gonaden ( Hoden und Ovar ). Im Ovar wird zunächst auch Testosteron (männliches Geschlechtshormon) produziert, das dann mit einer Aromatase (Enzym, das den Ring A des Steroidgerüstes zu einem Benzolring dehydriert ) zu Estradiol umgebaut wird. Die Enzyme, welche die einzelnen Schritte vom Cholesterin zu den Steroidhormonen katalysieren, können durch Gendefekte gestört sein. Relativ häufig ist der 21-Hydroxylase -Mangel. Dieser führt zu einer Überproduktion von Geschlechtshormonen, da der Weg zum Cortisol und Aldosteron gestört ist. Die Krankheit nennt sich Adrenogenitales Syndrom .

The common side effects of oxymetholone include depression, lethargy, headache, swelling, rapid weight gain, priapism , changes in skin color, urination problems, nausea , vomiting , stomach pain (if taken on an empty stomach), loss of appetite, jaundice , breast swelling in men, feeling restless or excited, insomnia , and diarrhea . [4] In women, side effects also include acne , changes in menstrual periods , deepened voice, hair growth on the chin or chest, male pattern baldness , enlarged clitoris , and changes in sex drive . [4] Because of its 17α-alkylated structure, oxymetholone is highly hepatotoxic . Long term use of the drug can cause a variety of serious ailments, including hepatitis , liver cancer , and cirrhosis ; therefore periodic liver function tests are recommended for those taking oxymetholone. [5]

Steroidi ciclopentanoperidrofenantrene

steroidi ciclopentanoperidrofenantrene

The common side effects of oxymetholone include depression, lethargy, headache, swelling, rapid weight gain, priapism , changes in skin color, urination problems, nausea , vomiting , stomach pain (if taken on an empty stomach), loss of appetite, jaundice , breast swelling in men, feeling restless or excited, insomnia , and diarrhea . [4] In women, side effects also include acne , changes in menstrual periods , deepened voice, hair growth on the chin or chest, male pattern baldness , enlarged clitoris , and changes in sex drive . [4] Because of its 17α-alkylated structure, oxymetholone is highly hepatotoxic . Long term use of the drug can cause a variety of serious ailments, including hepatitis , liver cancer , and cirrhosis ; therefore periodic liver function tests are recommended for those taking oxymetholone. [5]

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