Weider had enjoyed some success as a bodybuilder but far less as a weightlifter, and vehemently disagreed with the AAU rules that Hoffman had helped draft. Requiring that a bodybuilder shoulder-press 200 pounds, for instance—something that Weider struggled and, at times, failed to do—made little sense in the context of what was essentially an aesthetic contest. Moreover, Weider argued that Hoffman was unfairly overlooking African American athletes with impressive physiques, citing Melvin Wells’s failure to claim the Mr. America crown on several prior occasions. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, Weider would attempt to remedy these oversights by using his publications to promote the careers of black bodybuilders such as Rick Wayne, Harold Poole, and Chris Dickerson. But for Weider, racial equality came second to aesthetics: He was willing to consider anyone as a possible champion, so long as they had the look he prized.
The humerus, glenoid, scapula, acromion, clavicle and surrounding soft tissues make up the shoulder. There are three significant articulations: the sternoclavicular joint, the acromioclavicular joint and the glenohumeral joint. The glenohumeral joint is the most commonly dislocated major joint in the body.
Ligaments and surrounding musculature, including the rotator cuff muscles, contribute to shoulder joint stability. The rotator cuff is composed of the four muscles: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis that interlock to function as one unit. These muscles help with internal and external rotation of the shoulder and importantly depress the humeral head against the glenoid as the arm is elevated. The tendons join together to form one tendon, the rotator cuff tendon. This passes through the subacromial space. The subacromial bursa, which has a large number of pain sensors, fills the space between the acromion and the rotator cuff tendon. [ 1 ]
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