If the neurologic examination is unrevealing, a more general physical examination, searching for extramuscular signs, is warranted ( Table 6 5 , 7 – 15 , 17 , 18 , 21 , 24 – 27 , 34 , 36 , 38 ) . Mental status testing may reveal changes suggestive of a myopathy-inducing electrolyte disorder (calcium or magnesium) or an arrest of mental development as occurs in genetic myopathies. 25 , 29 The cardiovascular assessment may elicit changes consistent with a cardiomyopathy—a nonspecific consequence of many myopathy-inducing disorders—or a pericarditis, as occurs with some of the infectious and rheumatologic causes of muscle weakness. 5 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 18 , 21 , 24 , 25 , 29 , 36 , 38
The most commonly used AAS in medicine are testosterone and its various esters (but most commonly testosterone undecanoate , testosterone enanthate , testosterone cypionate , and testosterone propionate ),  nandrolone esters (most commonly nandrolone decanoate and nandrolone phenylpropionate ), stanozolol , and metandienone (methandrostenolone).  Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone , oxandrolone , mesterolone , and oxymetholone , as well as drostanolone propionate , metenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone .  Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; androstanolone, stanolone) and its esters are also notable, although they are not widely used in medicine.  Boldenone undecylenate and trenbolone acetate are used in veterinary medicine . 
As the actual biochemical defect underlying EIC is still unknown, it is difficult to recommend an effective treatment. Owners of some affected dogs have reported that if they feed their dogs a higher fat diet and/or keep more weight on their dog, that the episodes may be more difficult to induce. The best treatment in most dogs consists of avoiding intensive exercise in conjunction with extreme excitement and ending exercise at the first sign of weakness/wobbliness. A few dogs have, however, responded to medical treatment to the degree that they can re-enter training and competition at a high level. Each of the treatments listed below has been effective in a few dogs, but none of them has been 100% effective in all dogs.