The 1956 Winter Olympics and 1960 Summer Olympics were the first Games to feature Initials of Nations to refer to each NOC in the published official reports.  However, the codes used at the next few Games were often based on the host nation's language (., GIA for Japan at the 1956 Winter Olympics and 1960 Summer Olympics , both held in Italy, from Italian Giappone ) or based on the French name for the nation (., COR for Korea , from Corée ). By the 1972 Winter Olympics , most codes were standardized on the current usage, but several have changed in recent years. Additionally, the dissolution of the Soviet Union , division and unification of Germany , breakup of Yugoslavia , dissolution of Czechoslovakia , and several other instances of geographical renaming have all resulted in code changes.
When an 18-year-old Brazilian kid from Fluminense FC was signed by Real Madrid a decade ago, no one seriously expected Marcelo to one day surpass the achievements of the fullback he'd been hired to replace, compatriot and club legend Roberto Carlos. Yet with tireless verve and excellence down that left flank, always accompanied by a big smile underneath big hair, this now-inspiring figure for Madridistas might have done just that. Understated he might be in Real's flashy world, but he has played a major role in three La Liga and two Champions League wins.