A vaccine that targets PCSK9 has been developed to treat high LDL-particle concentrations. The vaccine uses a VLP ( virus-like particle ) as an immunogenic carrier of an antigenic PCSK9 peptide. VLP's are viruses that have had their DNA removed so that they retain their external structure for antigen display but are unable to replicate; they can induce an immune response without causing infection. Mice and macaques vaccinated with bacteriophage VLPs displaying PCSK9-derived peptides developed high-titer IgG antibodies that bound to circulating PCSK9. Vaccination was associated with significant reductions in total cholesterol, free cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides. 
Acute quadriplegic myopathy is associated with a specific decrease in thick-filament proteins related to an altered transcription rate. Although the decreased content of thick-filament proteins is important for prolonged muscle weakness, it is not the primary cause of muscle paralysis in the acute stage, during which impaired muscle membrane excitability probably plays a more significant role. Several factors contribute to this condition, but the action of corticosteroids seems to be the predominant one, along with potentiation by neuromuscular blocking agents, immobilization, and probably also concurrent sepsis.